In our first successful livestream we discuss 19 different topics and enjoy the contrary views of Hugh Harris. It’s a long one.
Falou – another twist in the saga
Josiah is sacked – by a private religious school
From The Australian
A cousin of sacked rugby international Israel Folau has been removed from his teaching job at a Catholic high school in Sydney’s south after calling the church’s mass a “paganistic ritual rooted in heresy, evil and devil worship”.
Josiah Folau, 20, was dismissed from his position as a tutor and boarding house supervisor at St Gregory’s College at Campbelltown, south of Sydney, more than a week ago.
The Australian understands that the school removed Mr Folau after he had posted Instagram comments and a video that were highly critical of the Catholic Church and reported by some mainstream media outlets.
Mr Folau is a former school captain at St Gregory’s and well liked by many in the local community.
School headmaster Lee MacMaster said confirmed Josiah’s departure: “We have met with Josiah recently and in our discussions, Josiah has made the decision to discontinue his casual employment at St Gregory’s College. We respect Josiah’s privacy in this matter.”
Josiah is well educated
Josiah Folau, also known by the surname Moehau, was school captain in 2016, finished equal eighth in the state in HSC religious studies, and achieved an ATAR of 93.75.
For once I partly agree with the Church (re Josiah, not Israel)
The sacking of Israel Folau’s cousin from a Catholic school was legally valid because public comments he made attacking the church as a “synagogue of Satan” and “masked devil worship” were incompatible with the purpose of his job, say church leaders.
Advocates of stronger laws to protect religious freedom told The Weekend Australian the reported dismissal of Josiah Folau as a tutor and boarding house supervisor at St Gregory’s College in Sydney’s southwest was different to the international rugby star’s sacking in May for expressing his religious views.
They said the Catholic Church was “within its rights” to remove teaching staff in direct contact with students if they attacked religious beliefs at the heart of establishing its schools.
Israel Folau’s dismissal was different because the termination of his contract by Rugby Australia for voicing his religious opinions had nothing to do with his job. He had been hired as a top tryscorer, not for views that had nothing to do with the football code.
Kristina Keneally said the government should revoke Mr Kassam’s visa
“We should not allow career bigots – a person who spreads hate speech about Muslims, about women, about gay and lesbian people – to enter our country with the express intent of undermining equality,” Senator Keneally said on Tuesday.
Mr Kassam has said the Koran is “fundamentally evil” and tweeted that Scottish National Party Leader Nicola Sturgeon’s legs should be taped shut following a miscarriage “so she can’t reproduce”.
In another tweet he said a former British minister “was in the special needs class” at school, and once described a female political rival as a “wrinkly old ginger bird”.
The 32-year-old, dubbed “Donald Trump on steroids” by one former colleague, was a United Kingdom Independence Party leadership candidate in 2016 and former chief adviser to Mr Farage.
Raheem Kassam will speak at next week’s Conservative Political Action Conference (CPAC), an export from the United States where it attracts tens of thousands of attendees every year.
A Religious Freedom Protest In Sydney
From the Star Observer
A crowd of around three thousand people packed Sydney’s Taylor Square today to show their opposition to state exemptions for religious groups from anti-discrimination laws, and the Morrison Government’s plans for federal “religious freedom” legislation.
Abortion law in NSW
From The ABC
Doctors say fears over late-term abortions are “unfounded and unfair” as debate swirls ahead of a vote on legalising abortion in NSW next week.
Over the weekend, political, medical and religious leaders argued over whether abortion should be treated as a legal issue or a social and health one.
Speaking at Sunday Mass, the dean of Sydney’s St Mary’s Catholic Cathedral said legalising abortion would just be “another attack on the conscience rights of Catholics”.
Reverend Don Richardson used his sermon to urge partitioners to contact their local MPs and persuade them to vote against the bill.
“We need to constantly remind our representatives in Parliament that they are accountable to us in the short term, and to God, whether they believe in him or not, in the end,” he said.
… “I can’t believe for the life of me that these respected parliamentarians would ever put their name to a bill which would kill an unborn baby the day before birth,” Anglican Archbishop of Sydney Glenn Davies told the Sydney Morning Herald.
What does the Bill actually say?
The Reproductive Health Care Reform Bill 2019 [NSW] is almost identical to Termination of Pregnancy Act 2018 [Qld]
The seal of the confessional in Tasmania
Reform to make religious ministers, plus members of the Tasmanian parliament, mandatory reporters of child abuse or neglect became a step closer this week after passing the state’s lower house.
Lifting the seal of confession was one of more than 400 recommendations made in 2018 by the royal commission into institutionalised child sex abuse.
“Under this reform, members of religious ministry will not be able to rely on the confessional privilege to refuse to disclose information,” Attorney General Elise Archer said.
The legislation has the backing of survivor groups, but Hobart’s Catholic Archbishop Julian Porteous believes it impinges on long-held church teachings and the freedom of religion.
“The law as currently drafted requires priests to violate the most solemn and sacred act between the penitent and God,” he said in a statement on Wednesday.
South Australia and the Northern Territory require religious leaders to report abuse, while Western Australia is considering a similar proposal.
Shootings in the USA
The only variable that can explain the high rate of mass shootings in America is its astronomical number of guns.
Americans make up about 4.4 percent of the global population but own 42 percent of the world’s guns. From 1966 to 2012, 31 percent of the gunmen in mass shootings worldwide were American, according to a 2015 study by Adam Lankford, a professor at the University of Alabama.
A New Yorker is just as likely to be robbed as a Londoner, for instance, but the New Yorker is 54 times more likely to be killed in the process.
Cancer patient the first to die under Victoria’s euthanasia law
A Victorian woman has become the first person to end her life under the state’s new voluntary assisted dying laws.
Kerry Robertson, 61, died at a nursing home in Bendigo on 15 July after almost a decade of living with cancer.
Her daughters, Jacqui Hicks and Nicole Robertson, told the advocacy group Go Gentle Australia her death had been “beautiful and peaceful”.
“It was a beautiful, positive experience,” the two women said. “It was the empowered death that she wanted.”
Robertson was the first person to be granted a permit to end her life under the law, having visited her specialist the day legislation came into effect on 19 June.
Robertson was diagnosed with breast cancer in 2010. Despite treatment, the cancer metastasised to her bones, lungs and brain. In March it spread to her liver and, as the side-effects of chemotherapy were no longer manageable, she decided to stop all treatment.
The assisted dying process had taken 26 days to complete and went smoothly, the daughters said.
Hicks said her mother had been “ready to go”: “Her body was failing her and she was in incredible pain. She’d been in pain for a long time.
“Palliative care did their job as well as they could. But it had been a long battle. She was tired, the pain was intolerable and there was no quality of life left for her.
“We were there with her; her favourite music was playing in the background and she was surrounded by love. She left this world with courage and grace, knowing how much she is loved.”
QandA featured Eric Abetz, Tim Costello (fellow of the Centre for Public Christianity), an ALP senator, a business consultant and a masterchef alumni
From The Saturday Paper
The general rate for a single person on Newstart is about $282 a week. But people aged 60 or over, who have received Newstart for nine months or more, get a slightly higher rate of $300 a week.
We all know the stereotype of the unemployed: the young “government surfer”, the bludger who would rather live off the taxpayer than take an available job. Such perceptions are encouraged by the tabloids, shock jocks and right-wing politicians.
But it’s a misleading cliché. The average age of a person on Newstart is now 45, eight years older than the average Australian. A detailed analysis of the demographics of unemployment by Australia’s peak welfare body, the Australian Council of Social Service (ACOSS), shows that last year only 17 per cent of those on Newstart were under 25 years old. Meanwhile 38 per cent were aged 25-44, and 43 per cent were over 45.
And, as reported here last week, data from National Seniors Australia shows the largest and fastest-growing cohort of people receiving Newstart was those aged 55 to 64. As of December 2018, there were 173,000 of them – close to a quarter of the total – and their ranks were growing by some 10,000 a year. Furthermore, this cohort stays on the benefit for an average of 190 weeks, almost four years.
The number of older unemployed is growing for a variety of reasons. As Ian Henschke, chief advocate for National Seniors, points out, employers prefer younger workers. When they are looking for cost savings, they commonly make older employees redundant and hire younger, cheaper labour.
Also, as ACOSS notes, a large number of people have been moved from the Disability Support Pension to Newstart. The former Labor government tightened the eligibility criteria for disability support, and the current government has vigorously applied them. In 2010, about 60 per cent of claims for a DSP were successful. It’s now about 30 per cent. In just one year, to July 2016, the Coalition government boasted of having set a record by shifting more than 31,000 off the DSP.
As a consequence, the number of people assessed as having a partial capacity to work has increased dramatically. Now, according to ACOSS, about one in four Newstart recipients has a disability. Among those aged over 45, the proportion rises to 29 per cent.
A third reason behind the ageing of the unemployed is that the retirement age is being progressively lifted. Finally, there are simply more people in this age group as the demographic lump of baby boomers approaches and enters retirement.
The government also has moved a large number of people from Parenting Payments to the less generous Newstart under its so-called “Welfare to Work” policies. Some 13 per cent of recipients, mostly sole parents, now are on Newstart.
The sad story of Judy
Judy takes comfort in the knowledge her life will become a bit easier in 18 months, when she reaches the pension age of 66.
For a start, her income will increase substantially. The single pension is $463 a week, about $180 more than the single rate of Newstart, and about $80 more than she currently gets, even working 10 hours a week.
More importantly, it will remove the constant pressure of having to satisfy the requirements and suspicions of Centrelink. On her 66th birthday Judy will change her social status, graduating to the ranks of those viewed as deserving welfare recipients.
“Eighteen months to go. I am so looking forward to that day,” she says.
Religious Knowledge Quiz
This time … a poem.
Charities and Tax
We don’t tax sporting clubs so why tax churches?
Are all church donations tax deductable?
Hugh Harris will answer all these questions and more. The Iron Fist will play devil’s advocate.
Does the organisation pay income tax, are donations tax deductible for the donor and what are the deals on other taxes such as GST, FBt, rates etc?
Specifically looking at religions and sporting/social clubs.
What is a not-for-profit?
Generally, a not-for-profit is an organisation that does not operate for the profit, personal gain or other benefit of particular people (for example, its members, the people who run it or their friends or relatives).
A not-for-profit can make a profit, but any profit made must be used for its purpose(s). It can keep profits as long as there is a genuine reason for this and it is to do with its purpose. For example, a good reason to keep profits may be to save up for starting a new project, building new infrastructure or accumulating a reserve so it continues to be sustainable.
If an organisation continues to hold onto significant profits indefinitely, without using them for its charitable purpose, this may suggest that the organisation is not working solely towards its stated charitable purpose (and is not operating as a not-for-profit).
What is a Charity?
The Charities Act clarifies that to be a recognised as a charity, an organisation must:
- be not-for-profit
- have only charitable purposes that are for the public benefit
- not have a disqualifying purpose
- not be an individual, a political party or a government entity.
Some purposes may benefit the community, but not fit the legal meaning of charitable purpose. For example, your organisation may not fit the legal meaning of charity if it is a:
- social club – unless its main purpose is charitable such as to help people who are socially isolated or disadvantaged, and the club’s social activities are the way it achieves this purpose
- sporting and recreational organisation – unless its main purpose is charitable such as providing sporting activities for the people with disabilities or the elderly
- professional or trade group – unless its main purpose is charitable, such as advancing education.
These organisations may still:
- be not-for-profits and exempt from income tax, or
- qualify as charities under state or territory laws.
However, they are unlikely to fall within the general legal meaning of charity as we apply it.
The Fist: But does it matter?
What Are Public Benevolent Institutions?
A public benevolent institution (PBI) is a charity whose main purpose is to relieve poverty, sickness, suffering or disability.
Examples of PBIs include:
- disability support services
- some not-for-profit homes for the aged
- housing bodies that provide low rental or subsidised accommodation to underprivileged persons affected by poverty, sickness or disability.
What are Deductible Gift Recipients?
Checkout the DGR table
John Dickson Facebook page
From the John Dickson Facebook Page comments
Hugh I’ve found this an interesting conversation – I didn’t even know Australia has land taxes (apparently because I own so little of it). Land tax would be the only practical way I think you could tax churches – but it would seem discriminatory unless you also required land tax on other NFP’s and charities…I’m trying to understand your point though. Do you object to scout associations owning land to do scout things? Or the YMCA owning pools? Or private schools owning land? Or World Vision owning an office? Is the problem churches owning land at all, or is the problem as you see it that they own a lot of land?
I’ve never disputed the church owns property wealth. What l have suggested is our current taxation system doesn’t tax assets. Property taxes would change our whole financial system.
Hugh Harris the “advancement of religion” is not a tax deductable purpose, but it is a NFP purpose. Churches avoid tax because they are NFP.If they set up a PBI entity then they can offer tax deductable receipts – but only for activities that directly alleviate poverty. The ACNC covers both NFP and PBI bodies but they are NOT treated the same from a tax point of view. Are you suggesting churches should be taxed in the same way for profit companies are taxed? I’m just trying to understand here
Hugh Harris, are you of the view that all not-for-profit organisations should pay tax, or do you have an argument why this particular NFP should pay tax, or is this just prejudice?—
Hugh Harris, churches are like any other registered charity, and so are income tax exempt and FBT rebatable. So is the Rationalist Society of Australia Inc., by the way!
And churches do indeed report to the ACNC. Here’s my own church’s listing, if you’re interested: https://www.acnc.gov.au/charity/02844e3b3c5129b79599c2658cf9a992#overview
Hillsong is, of course, not-for-profit. Do you have any information of profits being distributed to members or staff? I doubt it. They just happen to be a giant in this particular charitable sector. The same applies to the Catholic Church. There is no profit. Everything earned by property holdings is simply put back into the work of the Church. No one makes money out of it.
‘Basic religious charities’ are a different thing altogether, and they are small in number.
I am just glad we have at least dispelled the notion that donations to churches are tax deductible. They certainly are not, even if it is true that churches – like any other organisation – can set up separate DGR funds for specific purposes.
I cannot discern any argument from you as to why churches should not remain income tax exempt charities. You just don’t happen to think religion is a good. This is not an argument; it’s a mere distaste. It is no different from someone suggesting that “advancing debate” or “advancing culture” should not be charitable purposes. Most of us, however, think that debate, culture, and religion are goods in themselves. And if I were to defend the proposition in regards to religion, I would point out the way religion provides those involved with community, meaning, ethics, volunteer opportunities, and positive mental health outcomes. In addition, religion also inspires untold charitable works which benefit the wider community.
The Number of Australia’s Charities
In Australia there are approximately 56,000 registered charities
These are just some examples of the types of organisations registered as charities in Australia:
- religious organisations
- parents and citizens committees or associations
- universities and research organisations
- non-government schools
- animal welfare organisations
- international aid agencies
- family violence support organisations
- aged care centres and child care groups
- cultural institutions such as museums and galleries
- environmental protection groups
- legal aid centres
It is also worth noting that some organisations consist of multiple separately registered charities. These individual entities may fall under a larger parent body, but they each have their own ABN and are registered as separate charities. Some examples include:
- The Salvation Army – 33 separately registered charities
- Melbourne University – 10 separately registered charities
- Surf Life Saving Australia – 264 separately registered charities
- Lifeline – 32 separately registered charities
- RSLs – over 500 separately registered charities
The Size of the Charities
Almost two-thirds of Australia’s registered charities (63%) are classified as small, with annual revenue of $250,000 or less. Of this majority, approximately one-third is very small, with annual revenue of less than $50,000. Also, just under half of Australia’s registered charities (44%) employ no staff and are entirely volunteer-run.
Only a minority of charities are medium (17%) with annual revenue between $250,000 and $1 million or large (19%) with annual revenue of $1 million or more.
Has anyone changed their minds?
The UK can’t fight back against Iran
The Royal Navy (RN) no longer has the capacity to “rule the waves” around the world. The RN still has not recovered from a significant budget cut in 2010 which saw its numbers severely reduced – especially at its most experienced levels – and its recruitment inadequate. As the First Sea Lord commented in March this year,“ we are (now) through with relegating frigates and destroyers to training vessels due to a shortage of sailors”! This comes on top of a major problem the RN had with its 6 new destroyers whose engines could not operate in the warm waters of the Gulf and had to be totally replaced at enormous cost. This in turn delayed the major frigate program. There have also been significant delays with the aircraft carriers and Dreadnought nuclear submarines. As the Iranians have been quick to point out, the RN would have advised that one – or even a few RN ships – in the Gulf /Straits with its 1500 kms of Iranian coastline would be “sitting ducks” to the impressive Iranian land and sea missile systems. They would be without the requisite substantial air and counter-measures cover – which Britain no longer has anywhere near that area. Even if the RN had a carrier available it would need escorting ships for its protection – which is why the US Navy is very cautious about deploying its carriers and larger ships inside the Straits and Gulf.
Meanwhile Australia will sign up.
Australia’s defence minister Linda Reynolds says the Morrison government is giving “very serious consideration” to a formal request from the Trump administration to join a US-led coalition to protect shipping in the Gulf from Iranian military forces.
Characterising the relationship between Washington and Canberra as “unbreakable”, US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo said: “We hope Australia will partner with us [on] some of the most pressing foreign policy challenges of our time, like efforts to stabilise Syria and keep Afghanistan free of terror, and confront the Islamic Republic of Iran’s unprovoked attacks on international shipping in the Strait of Hormuz.”
The US defence secretary, Mark Esper, said the purpose of the proposed operation in the Gulf was to promote the principles of freedom of navigation and freedom of commerce and to “prevent any provocative actions that would lead to some misunderstanding or miscalculation that would lead to a conflict”.
George Pell in Handcuffs
Australian artist Scott Marsh says he was disappointed to hear his mural of convicted child sex offender and former archbishop George Pell had been painted over – but he wasn’t surprised.
The striking mural, which was located about 50 metres from St Mary’s Cathedral where Pell formerly conducted mass, shows the former Vatican treasurer in a prison tracksuit, handcuffs and a cardinal’s cap, praying in front of a Satanic-looking figure.
According to Seven News, the mural was removed at some point this week from the Domain Wilson’s Car Park in response to “complaints”.
“We’re not seeking to make any kind of statement, religious or otherwise, but have simply acted upon complaints from members of the public who find the painting offensive,” a Wilson Parking spokesman reportedly told Seven News in a statement.
“The painting was done on private property without permission, and in close proximity to a nearby primary school … Because of this, and because some find the content offensive, a decision was taken to remove it.”
Women are having action taken against them because they refused to touch a penis and testicles.
This is the case of Jessica Yaniv, born Jonathan Yaniv, who has filed 16 complaints with the human rights tribunal in British Columbia against female beauticians who refused to provide her/ him with an intimate wax. These are waxers who only tend to women. Whose expertise is in the waxing of women’s intimate areas. And whose preference is to wax women, not men. So when a person who has a penis and testicles, as Yaniv does, comes along and says ‘wax me’, they understandably said no.
It is perverse. In a normal world, it would be the fundamental right of all women not to have to go anywhere near a penis, unless of course they wanted to. But in our woke world of casual sex-switching and identitarian entitlement, we have the deranged situation where a born male can claim to be the humiliated victim because a group of women wouldn’t let him come into their home, take off his clothes, and air his genitals for a waxing.
This strange case raises so many questions. Is there a human right to have your balls waxed? Is it really an assault on human rights if a woman says, ‘I don’t want to wax your genital area’? Surely the discrimination is against the women themselves, who are being dragged into a public human-rights procedure simply for asserting their basic right not to have strange men — biological men! — in their homes
But perhaps the most pressing question raised by this case — a question so few woke warriors and identitarian leftists want to address — is this: just because someone says they are a woman, does that make them a woman?
This lies at the heart of this case. Even some pro-trans people will no doubt argue that Yaniv’s case is frivolous and that most transgender people don’t go around demanding waxes from people who don’t want to wax them.
That is true. But while Yaniv’s human-rights action might be eccentric, it also entirely follows the logic, the central logic, of the transgender ideology. Which is that you can be any sex you want. You can self-ID however you like. Feel like a woman? Then you’re a woman. And anyone who says you aren’t is a bigoted, disgusting spouter of hate.
This is at the core of the trans ideology. And it explains why so few media outlets are commenting on the British Columbia case — because they instinctively know it represents the warped but logical endpoint of that ideology.
Jessica Yaniv is a woman, right? And anyone who says Jessica Yaniv is not a woman is bigot, yes? It therefore follows that female beauticians must wax Jessica Yaniv in the same way they would wax other women, even though Yaniv has a penis rather than a vagina.
We can’t ignore this case. It raises fundamental issues about women’s rights, about how transgenderism threatens women’s rights, about the reality of sex, and about reason itself.
It boils down to this: is Jessica Yaniv a woman? Really? I say no, he isn’t. He’s a man. And therefore he has no right to access services or spaces that are reserved for women.
NIB boss Mark Fitzgibbon proposes scrapping Medicare
And so it begins …
The boss of health insurance provider NIB has called on the government to scrap Medicare and institute compulsory private coverage for all Australians.
Mark Fitzgibbon made the stunning pitch in an opinion piece in today’s Australian Financial Review, calling on the country to adopt a similar healthcare model to the United States.
He said health insurers faced a growing crisis due to skyrocketing costs and described the Medicare system as a “government monopoly”.
“(The) sensible policy approach would be to make private health insurance compulsory for all Australians with taxation devoted to subsidising the premiums for those who would otherwise be left behind,” Mr Fitzgibbon wrote in the business newspaper.
“That is, high-income earners would at one end of the scale pay the entire premium while at the other, those with low income fully subsidised.”
His call comes on the back of a warning from The Grattan Institute last week that the health insurance industry was in a “death spiral”.
Young people increasingly can’t afford hefty and ever-increasing premiums and providers face an inevitable defeat from the ageing population, the report said.
While he distanced himself from claims of a sector “death spiral”, Mr Fitzgibbon conceded private health insurers faced a tough future.
But so too did the economy and the country’s bottom line, he argued.
“How do we continue to pay for a universal healthcare system with an ageing population, burgeoning spending and ever-increasing dependency ratio of older retired Australians to younger taxpayers?”
Teens are abandoning Facebook
G’day mates. Ummm, been a couple of good episodes, I need to get onto this streaming thing so I can watch.
Fist, you have finally made the craziest comment of the year, that young people don’t use Facebook. Maybe yours don’t, but the ones I know are still glued. They use Insta and other apps for more directed socials.
Otherwise, I’m totally on your side as far as the yanks go. I’m not sure what conditioning one undergoes on entry into liberal party, but Scott seems brainwashed against practical socialism. Is it just the term he hates?
Sorry Watley, you must be hanging around with the lower classes.
Teenagers have abandoned Facebook in favour of other social media platforms such as Snapchat and Instagram, according to a study from the Pew Research Center.
Just 51% of US individuals aged 13 to 17 say they use Facebook – a dramatic plunge from the 71% who said they used the social network in Pew’s previous study in 2015, when it was the dominant online platform.
In this year’s study reported Facebook use was, according to Pew, “notably lower” than the percentage of teens who said they used YouTube (85%), Instagram (72%) or Snapchat (69%). In the previous study, just 52% of teens said they used Instagram, while 41% said they used Snapchat. YouTube was not included in the 2014-2015 survey.
Use of Facebook was markedly higher among lower-income teens, with 70% of those living in households earning less than $30,000 a year using the platform, compared with just 36% of those whose annual family income is $75,000 or more.
When asked which of the online platforms teens used the most, only 10% said Facebook. Thirty-five percent said Snapchat, 32% said YouTube and 15% said Instagram, which is also owned by Facebook.
“Again, lower-income teens are far more likely than those from higher income households to say Facebook is the online platform they use most often (22% v 4%),” states the report, titled Teens, Social Media & Technology 2018.
YouTube is riddled with conspiracy theories
YouTube is far more than just a video-sharing website. The online platform, which hosts almost two billion users each month, is an archive, a laboratory, a news outlet and an educational tool. It’s also a goldmine for climateconspiracy theories.
If you are using YouTube to learn about climate science, an exploratory research project has now shown that most videos in the search engine will expose you to misinformation.
“Searching YouTube for climate-science and climate-engineering-related terms finds fewer than half of the videos represent mainstream scientific views,” says study author Joachim Allgaier, a sociologist and communications researcher at RWTH Aachen University.
“It’s alarming to find that the majority of videos propagate conspiracy theories about climate science and technology.”
Altogether, ten search terms were employed: climate, climate change, climate engineering, climate manipulation, climate modification, climate science, geoengineering, global warming, chemtrails, and climate hacking.
The last two of these are non-scientific terms often used by conspiracy theorists, and they were included as a sort of ‘search control’ to find out whether they brought up similar videos.
Using Tor as an online anonymisation tool that removes personal search history, the team combed through 200 videos, roughly twenty per search term.
Remarkably, only 89 of these videos were found to support scientific consensus views about human-caused climate change, and four of those videos include climate scientists discussing topics with deniers.
On the other hand, 107 videos were found to oppose scientific consensus views, with 16 of these videos denying human-caused climate change outright, and 91 spreading conspiracy theories about climate engineering and climate change.